Zoella, the YouTube star, is writing her new novel without the aid of a ghostwriter, she has said, following controversy over her debut book.

Tabloid in long-form, Anger details the scandals of Tinseltown’s very first stars (including Rudolph Valentino, Roscoe Arbuckle, and Clara Bow) against the backdrop of a city charged by rampant debauchery and high glamour.

Whereas Hollywood Babylon deals mostly with the era’s nightlife, the workday habits of early film stars were pretty wild too. For our purposes, it’s all about the prep. Hence a little history lesson today, particularly about how one might get ready for a period moving picture.

Early movies were shot on orthochromatic film, which was not sensitive to yellow-red wavelengths (so colors on that end of the spectrum became almost black). Blue and purple tones, in turn, showed up pale and whitish. The unfortunate on-screen effects of this were myriad—actors with ruddy skin looked dirty, and blue eyes would turn blank and spooky. The latter pitfall almost foiled the ambitions of eventual Academy Award winner Norma Shearer when she was told by D.W. Griffith, The Birth of a Nation director, that her eyes were “far too blue” to have any success in cinema.

In order to create an impactful (and hopefully, natural) look under such conditions in the 1910s and ’20s, most actors were tasked with applying their own makeup (A common press photo set-up was very Top Shelf-like and featured the starlet at her vanity.), and studios would distribute guides for proper use of color. Blue-toned greasepaint was applied as a foundation and contouring shade, while lips were painted yellow. In real life, actors must have looked truly bizarre when they arrived at the studio. Early greasepaint was texturally problematic. Since it was applied with a heavy hand, the surface layer would often crack when the actor’s expression changed (not great for a medium that relied so heavily on overly dramatic, silent expression). It could also be hazardous—as was in the case of Dolores Costello (Drew Barrymore’s paternal grandmother), whose complexion and career were both damaged beyond repair by early film makeup. In 1914, Max Factor, a wig and cosmetic shop owner in Los Angeles, developed a solution in the form of Flexible Greasepaint. After its invention, he became the most sought-after makeup artist in Hollywood and the leading figure in cosmetic development for the industry.

Zoe Sugg with her first book, Girl Online (Reuters/Luke MacGregor)
Zoe Sugg with her first book, Girl Online (Reuters/Luke MacGregor)

Factor’s personalized approach to makeup artistry cemented a few specific, studio-endorsed “looks.” For Clara Bow, he drew her sharply peaked cupid’s bow; Joan Crawford’s signature “smeared” lip (extending far beyond her natural line) assuaged the actress’ thin-lipped insecurities and was all thanks to Factor. Industry standards also required actors’ eyes to look deep-set and moody by shadowing them from lash line to socket, and eyebrows were drawn straight, bold, and very, very long (think Louise Brooks).

When orthochromatic film gave way to panchromatic in the 1920s, shiny hair and eyelids captured the glow of incandescent bulbs used on-set to great effect. Factor kept pace, developing specific light-refracting hair dyes to suit this technical shift—even sprinkling gold dust on to Marlene Dietrich’s wigs when asked. He couldn’t rest on his laurels for long though—Technicolor was on the horizon, and with it came a new set of cosmetic challenges.

A final note: In the early ‘30s, still riding the panchromatic “high shine” wave, Factor created a slick lip coat for his famous clients. The formula would go on to become commercially sold as “X-Rated,” the world’s very first lip gloss. Something I think we’re all still kind of into.

—Lauren Maas

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Art is revolution

Jacqueline Delaye has a multidisciplinary background based in social studies and arts. She studied Social Anthropology in Mexico city. Cinema and Tv in Barcelona and Art and Culture Management in Paris. She worked as a video artist and documentary filmmaker around Europe.
She lived and worked in Berlin, Germany during 11 years, after living in different countries like USA, England, France, Spain, Italy and of course Mexico the place where she was born.
Now she lives in Portugal in the island of Sao Miguel, where she takes the inspiration of nature. She focuses on the social anthropological aspects of the human being reflecting the adaptation of culture through arts.

 

Born: French-Mexican 17.02.1978 Guadalajara, Mexico.

 

Studies
Television, Cinema, Video, IDEP Barcelona.
Drawing and Painting in CEAC Barcelona.
Management and production of art and culture IESA, Paris.
Organisation and design of museums and galleries, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.
Study of art history and evaluation of art works, Casa Lamm, Casa de Cultura Mexico city.

Colloquium “A brief history of Goya” Museo Nacional de Arte , Mexico City

Fotografie Centro de Cultura Coyoacán

 

Publications
2016-2018 Videos Capitalism in German online Magazin Culturmag
2016- Art-book Catalogue first edition.
2007-Vértigo Mexican Magazine 25 / Marzo/ 2007

 

Exhibitions
House of Cultures of Mexico in Paris,“Les ponts”, Paris 2007
Art Festival Blue-Valentine, Paris Video Video „Sequence“ 2006
Organization in Exhibition Gildo Medina, Paris 2006
Production of 30 videos for the governmental company INFONAVIT, Mexico 2006
Video “Magic Afternoon” of Wolfgang Bauer with Jonathan Meese. Angela Richter, Daniel Richter. Kampenagel theater. Hamburg, Germany 2005
Video “Ralf Metzenmacher” ex boss-Design of the Company PUMA, Bamberg,  Germany. 2005
ETA Hoffmann theater.  Video “Eloisa Está debajo un almendro” from Enrique Gardiel Poncera .Bamberg, Germany 2004
Documentary film about the theater project Magic Afternoon in the Kampenagel theater with artists such as Daniel Richter, Jonathan Messe. Hamburg, Germany. 2004
Artistic video” Where you” in Bamberg, Germany. 2004
Reportage about the theater project “Los Figurantes” in the University of Bamberg.Bamberg, Germany 2003
Documentary film about a handicaps factory “Es gibt nur eine Welt” Kulmbach, Germany. 2003
First edition of Film festival Docupolis in Barcelona, Spain Art video “Auto-Conscience”.2001

 

References

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